Rwandan economy is still largely based on agriculture, The sector occupies approximately 80% of the active population, especially women, and contributes approximately 36% of the GDP and about 70% of the country’s export revenue and we need an emphasis on moving the sector from subsistence to commercial and safe production. Most of the farmers use synthetic chemicals in fertilization and in pest and diseases protection, while long-term consumption of chemical fertilizers not only lead to degradation of soil quality, but also reduce products quality, that disrupt the natural balance of the ecosystems and increases the environmental pollution. Also the use of synthetic chemicals may give high yield for some time and protects the plants but the continuous use of chemical in farming, useful organisms in soil become inactive and the insects or pests and other diseases gain resistance to the chemicals and later the chemicals may not show its effect on the pests, insects and other harmful organisms to the crops. Consequently the loss turn back to the farmers where input cost such as these chemical fertilizer become higher than outcome which to extreme poverty even if they are named farmers.
To overcome these such problem we need technology which is ‘economically viable’, ‘environmentally sustainable’ and ‘socially acceptable’ in recycling municipal and industrial wastes which are ending up in the landfills every day, creating extraordinary economic and environmental problems for their management while they should be used in organic farming. It is in this regard HIHD is initiating a new approach where community will do organic farming instead of chemical based farming from this HIHD is promoting eco-friendly agriculture by using Worm farming (vermiculture) that will produce vermicomposting of good quality. Vermicomposting is the process by which Worms are used to convert organic materials (usually waste) into humus-like materials known vermicompost. Vermicompost is stable fine granular organic manure which enriches soil qualities by improving its physical chemical and biological properties. It is highly used in raising seedlings and for crop production.
Vermicomposting has the following advantages over chemical fertilizer
- It restore microbial population which includes nitrogen fixer, phosphate, etc,
- Provide major and micro nutrients to plant,
- Improve soil structure and water holding capacity,
- Provide good aeration to soil,
- Decrease the use of pesticides to control plant pathogen,
- Improve structure stability of the soil thereby preventing soil erosion,
- Enhance the quality of the grain / fruits due to increased sugar content.